Nurses play an essential role in providing health care to patients and their families. Nurses are the people patients interact with the most in a hospital setting (even more than doctors!). In the united states, nursing is the second profession that has the most impact on society.
In a growing world of medical careers and opportunities, nurses have many roles to choose from. Nurses can specialize in various areas of medicine, from oncology to pediatrics. Nurse practitioners use two dominant models to deliver care: the medical and nursing models.
In this article, we will compare and contrast the two models, Medical Model vs Nursing Model. Before that, let’s see something that might help you make a decision.
- Models of Care
- What Is the Nursing Model?
- What Is the Medical Model?
- Benefits of Both Models for Patients
- More Resources on Medical Model vs Nursing Model:
Models of Care
The medical model and nursing model professions began in 1965 and had similar histories. Both of them are the root of modern nursing theories. But here is where the similarities diverge. One developed under the umbrella of nursing practice care, and the other was developed under a medical model.
Both professions have the same goal of delivering quality patient care. Both models approach their careers with a shared philosophy. However, there are some nuances between the two professions that make each model unique in its way.
What Is the Nursing Model?
In 1965, Dr. Loretta Ford and Dr. Henry Silver defined the basis for a nursing model. They named it the nursing process, a systematic approach to achieving quality care outcomes. This includes assessment, diagnosis, outcome identification, planning, and implementation with evaluation at each stage of the process.
In this model, nurse practitioners follow a series of steps to deliver patient care safely and effectively. The nursing models have four main processes: assessment, diagnosis, planning, and implementation. At every step of the process, nurses work collaboratively with other health professionals in their organization or practice setting.
The medical model is based on diagnosing illness or injury and treating patients accordingly without considering the physical and psychological consequences that affect their daily life.
From an early age, nurses are taught how to use medications properly to help patients recover. Nurses may also work with doctors during hospital rounds, performing various procedures and making decisions for individual patients based on the best information at hand.
The medical model is broken down into four phases: assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up. For example, nurses monitor patient progress after surgery or monitor medication dosages that doctors prescribe to provide safe care throughout their recovery.
What Is the Medical Model?
In 1965, Dr. Eugene Stead from Duke University Medical Center was the first to put together a class of physician assistants. The medical model is a health professional’s approach to understanding diseases and determining suitable treatments within the managed care system.
It includes systematic diagnostic protocols for each disease or condition under examination to reach an accurate diagnosis based on valid indicators of clinical significance. When it comes to nursing, physicians make recommendations to the nurse, who then interprets the physician’s advice and subsequently recommends care based on that interpretation.
In this model, values prioritize patient needs according to their lifetime value. Nurses are involved in medical decision-making at all levels of practice within an interdisciplinary team. The medical model has four phases: assessment, diagnosis, planning, and implementation.
The medical model focuses on diagnosing problems related to a patient’s health or disease status to seek appropriate treatments depending on the severity of their condition.
Difference Between Medical Model vs Nursing Model
The nursing and medical models are respected methods of providing patient care, each with its benefits and challenges. Understanding the differences can help you decide which model is best for you and your patients. Following are the areas where the two models differ include:
A medical healthcare professional’s goal is to quickly diagnose and treat an illness or injury to return the patient to their previous state. On the other hand, nurses take a more holistic approach that considers an illness or injury’s physical, psychological, and social effects. Their goal is to help patients regain their optimal health and well-being.
Conversely, the nursing model stresses a patient-centered approach where clinical decisions are made in the patient’s best interest. Planning and implementation work together to create a care plan tailored specifically to meet patient needs.
The nursing model is patient-focused instead of treatment focused as with the medical model. In this way, Nurses also perform risk management activities by determining preventive measures to reduce health risks.
Physical and Mental Factors
The area of care most impacted by the medical model versus the nursing model is patients’ physical and mental state. Nurses are taught to holistically assess their patients, taking their physical condition and emotional state into account. Nurses also provide emotional support to their patients, which can promote healing.
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In contrast, the medical model focuses on treating the illness or injury rather than the whole person. The goal is to restore the patient to their previous state as quickly as possible. This often leads to a reduction in symptoms without considering the psychological and social effects of the illness or injury.
The nurse-patient relationship is founded on trust and mutual respect. Nurses take on a more nurturing role and educate patients on the importance of preventive care. Treatment is provided in a supportive, stress-free environment that lowers stress levels and promotes healing.
In contrast, the patient-physician relationship is based on medical authority and emotional distance. Physicians must remain objective when making decisions about their patient’s treatment plans to treat an illness or injury effectively.
The nursing model prioritizes education by teaching patients self-management skills and how to manage chronic illnesses and injury prevention. The goal is for patients to control their healthcare by providing them with all the knowledge to improve health outcomes.
In contrast, the model focuses primarily on treatment rather than prevention. Patients are given information about their illness or injury but often lack the knowledge to manage their healthcare. The goal is to return the patient to their previous state as quickly as possible.
The nursing model stresses the importance of teamwork and collaboration to provide comprehensive care for patients. Nurses work collaboratively with other interdisciplinary team members to assess, diagnose, plan, and implement patient care. This ensures that all patients’ needs are met and receive coordinated care.
The medical model focuses on the individual physician’s ability to make decisions independently to treat the patient effectively. While the team approach is used, it is often less collaborative than the nursing model. This can lead to fragmented care and a lack of communication between the different members involved in a patient’s care.
Risk Management and Preventive Measures
Nurses are responsible for risk management when treating their patients, taking preventive measures to reduce the chances of illness or injury occurring. In this way, Nurses promote wellness by finding ways to prevent their patient’s conditions from worsening.
They also aim to preserve health by encouraging healthy habits such as proper nutrition and physical activity to promote healing and well-being.
In contrast, physicians focus on treating an illness or injury rather than preventing them because prevention is often difficult, if not impossible, to achieve. Emphasis is placed on diagnosing and treating existing problems rather than preventing them from happening in the first place.
Benefits of Both Models for Patients
Patients gain from the best of both worlds when the medical and nursing approaches are applied in tandem. The medical model treats diseases and injuries, whereas the nursing model cares for and supports the person. When patients’ specific requirements are considered, this leads to improved health results.
Patients who get care from nurses who adhere to the nursing model frequently have reduced stress levels, increased communication with healthcare professionals, and better overall health results. When a patient’s physical, emotional, and spiritual needs are considered, they are more likely to recover quickly and thoroughly.
While the medical model is an essential part of healthcare, it is necessary to note that it does have some limitations. The nursing model fills in these gaps by providing holistic care for patients, essential for their overall well-being.
When both models are used together, patients benefit from the best of both worlds. The medical model provides treatment for illnesses and injuries, while the nursing model provides care and support for the whole person. This leads to better health outcomes for patients when their individual needs are considered.
The medical and nursing models are essential to providing quality healthcare for patients. While the medical model is focused on treatment, the nursing model offers care and support for the whole person. When both models are used together, patients benefit from the best of both worlds.
The medical professionals provide treatment for illnesses and injuries, while the nursing model offers care and support for the whole person. This leads to better health outcomes for patients when their individual needs are considered. Nurses who follow the nursing model often have lower stress levels, improved communication with healthcare providers, and better overall health outcomes.
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