Good leadership is a trait sought after in many professions, but it’s an absolute necessity for nurses. The best nurses can step up and take control of a situation even when no one else can. They have the insight to know what changes need to be made and the willingness to make those changes happen as smoothly as possible.
As much as everyone would love to say “I’ve got this“ every time a difficult patient or family member comes into the picture, not everyone has these strengths naturally. Some people have to develop them over time, while others may never feel comfortable taking charge in certain situations.
Fortunately, there are leadership theories in nursing that anyone can use as a guide for becoming an effective nurse leader. But first, let’s see what exactly leadership theory is.
- What is a Leadership Theory?
- Types of Leadership Theories in Nursing
- Using Leadership Theories in Nursing
- Qualities of an Exceptional Nurse Leader
- Why Do Nursing Leadership Theories Matter?
- How to Develop Leadership Skills and Become a Nurse Leader
- Ending Thoughts
- More Leadership Resources
What is a Leadership Theory?
A leadership theory is a framework or set of ideas that explains how individuals become effective leaders and how they can best lead others. Leadership theories can help to identify the traits, skills, and behaviors that are associated with effective leadership, and can provide guidance on how to develop and improve these qualities.
Types of Leadership Theories in Nursing
There are many types of leadership theories, all of which are applicable to nursing. Let’s dig into each theory and how it could apply to the field of nursing.
Transformational Leadership Theory in Nursing
James McGregor Burns developed transformational leadership theory in the 1970s. The transformational leadership theory focuses on how a leader’s vision can influence an entire group to accomplish goals they never thought possible. In turn, the group members are more likely to put their trust in this visionary who inspires them so.
This theory emphasizes the importance of inspiring and motivating followers to achieve their full potential and accomplish organizational goals. It involves the leader taking a proactive role in developing and nurturing their followers, rather than simply directing and delegating tasks.
Transformational leaders inspire their followers to be creative and innovative by creating a vision for the future that resonates with their followers. They encourage their followers to think beyond their own self-interest and focus on the needs of the group as a whole.
Transformational leaders also develop a strong sense of trust and respect with their followers, providing them with support, guidance, and mentoring. They use their charisma, vision, and emotional intelligence to motivate and engage their followers, encouraging them to work towards a common goal with a shared sense of purpose.
Overall, the transformational leadership theory emphasizes the importance of empowering and developing followers, inspiring them to achieve their full potential and contribute to the success of the organization.
In nursing, it is imperative to have transformational leaders who hold positions in which they are influential over large numbers of nurses. Rather than an individual unit, these leaders are extremely effective in the roles of Directors of Nursing, Chief Nursing Officers, and Nurse Executives. Not only are they aware of what it takes to provide shift to shift bedside care, they are forward thinking about issues that will impact the entire nursing workforce at an organization.
They have to influence not only the nursing staff, but also the other leaders in the hospital who are not nurses but are in a place to make decisions that impact nurses. Finally, these leaders should be in their leadership position for an extended period of time, as it takes time to build trust and rapport
(There are many transformational nurse managers, however my guess is they will be promoted to director-level soon!)
Famous Leaders Who Exemplified the Transformational Leadership Theory
Nelson Mandela, Martin Luther King Jr., Malcom X, and Steve Jobs
Transactional Leadership Theory (AKA Management Style) in Nursing
Transactional leadership theory is a leadership approach that emphasizes the importance of setting clear expectations and providing rewards or punishments based on performance. This leadership style focuses on the transaction or exchange between the leader and the followers, where the leader provides guidance and direction, and the followers comply with the leader’s directives.
In this theory, leaders focus on maintaining the status quo and managing day-to-day operations rather than developing a long-term vision or inspiring followers to be creative and innovative. Leaders use rewards such as bonuses or promotions to motivate high-performing employees, and punishments such as reprimands or demotions for low-performing employees.
Transactional leaders are often seen as managers rather than true leaders, as they focus on maintaining control and adhering to established procedures rather than inspiring change or growth. They are effective in maintaining order and ensuring that tasks are completed efficiently, but they may not be as effective in motivating and engaging employees over the long term.
While this leadership theory doesn’t sound as positive as a transformative leader, this style is highly effective for Nurse Managers of nursing units. This is because these managers are often responsible for dozens of newly licensed nurses, nursing assistants, and others who must have clear expectations. This is helpful for appropriate professional development. Being a successful bedside nurse is complex and requires adherence to many protocols, policies, and procedures. While there is definitely an art to nursing, it takes time to develop those skills (we’re talking years) and therefore a transactional leader is actually extremely beneficial to those novice, advanced beginners, and even competent nurses.
The vast majority of nurses on an inpatient unit thrive with very clear expectations, acknowledgement and incentives for exceptional performance, and clear consequences for failure to comply with unit standards.
Famous Leaders Who Exemplified the Transformational Leadership Theory
Jack Welch (known for his “rank and yank” policy, which involved firing the bottom 10% of employees every year), Rudy Giuliani (as mayor of NYC who focused on law and order, and being tough on crime), and Vince Lombardi.
Situational Leadership Theory in Nursing
Situational Leadership Theory is a leadership model developed by Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard. This model proposes that the most effective leaders are those who can adapt their leadership style to fit the needs and maturity levels of their followers in different situations.
The model is based on two key concepts: leadership style and follower maturity level. Leadership style refers to the way in which a leader interacts with their followers and includes four different styles: directing, coaching, supporting, and delegating. Follower maturity level refers to the level of knowledge, skills, and experience that a follower has in a particular task or situation.
The model proposes that there are four possible combinations of leadership style and follower maturity level:
- Directing: This style is most effective when the follower is new to a task or lacks the necessary skills and experience. In this situation, the leader needs to provide clear instructions and closely supervise the follower to ensure they can complete the task.
- Coaching: This style is appropriate when the follower has some knowledge and experience but still requires guidance and support. The leader should provide direction and feedback to help the follower improve their skills and gain confidence.
- Supporting: This style is most effective when the follower has developed the necessary skills but still lacks confidence or motivation. The leader should offer praise and recognition to build the follower’s confidence and provide support as needed.
- Delegating: This style is appropriate when the follower has a high level of competence and commitment to the task. The leader should provide support as needed but should otherwise delegate responsibility to the follower.
Naturally, a situational leader is effective on a nursing unit. Situational leaders could be in the position of a charge nurse, unit manager, or supervisor. They are individuals who know their staff well and adapt to their needs as they see fit and learn the individuals. This is impactful for nursing units because there are often nurses across the professional development spectrum (novices, advanced beginners, those who are competent, proficient, and experts) who would require different leadership to thrive.
A novice nurse who has a leader who is focused mainly on the success of how their unit fits into the entire organization would not be ideal. They need leadership to help them get through the next shift! And to delegate to them clearly with supervision.
Conversely, an expert nurse doesn’t need a leader to provide clear instructors for basic nursing tasks they mastered 10 years ago. Rather, they have established they can be trusted to be safely delegated to.
Famous Leaders Who Exemplified the Situational Leadership Theory
Oprah Winfrey, Colin Powel, and Howard Schultz. Please note that this theory is widely applicable across many different industries and contexts, and many other leaders have likely used its principles without explicitly referencing the theory itself.
Autocratic Leadership in Nursing
Autocratic leadership in nursing is a leadership style where the nurse leader assumes complete control and decision-making power over their team members. This style of leadership is characterized by a hierarchical structure, where the leader is seen as the ultimate authority figure and team members are expected to follow their directives without question.
In an autocratic leadership style, the leader maintains strict control over their team members and often makes decisions without seeking input or feedback. They may use fear or coercion to maintain their position of authority and enforce their decisions.
While this leadership style can be effective in certain situations,(crisis situations), it can also create a negative work environment and lead to decreased job satisfaction and motivation among team members. Autocratic leadership can stifle creativity and innovation, as team members are not given the opportunity to contribute their ideas and perspectives.
In nursing, autocratic leadership may be necessary in situations where quick decisions need to be made, such as during a medical emergency. However, it is generally not recommended as a long-term leadership style, as it can lead to increased turnover rates and decreased morale among team members.
(And when you slip into an autocratic leadership mode during a code, it’s best to follow up with people afterwards if you had to be especially short/direct or raise your voice.)
Examples of autocratic leadership in nursing may include a nurse leader who makes all decisions without seeking input from their team members, or a leader who uses fear or intimidation to enforce their decisions. This style of leadership can be particularly problematic in situations where collaboration and teamwork are essential to providing quality patient care.
Democratic Leadership Style in Nursing
This style of leadership is more common than you might think. It is where members of a group participate in decision-making and work towards a clearly defined goal. While it can be difficult to implement, democratic leadership has been known to increase motivation and overall group performance while decreasing the chances of mistakes on the task at hand.
In this leadership style, the leader allows team members to have an equal say in decision-making processes. In this style, the leader acts as a facilitator, allowing team members to vote or express their opinions, and the decision is made based on the majority vote. This style is particularly effective when team members have similar levels of expertise or knowledge, and when the leader values the opinions and ideas of all team members equally.
This leadership style may be helpful in establishing specific rules for the unit or organization that will directly impact the staff (how to schedule holidays, how to rotating floating, how to deal with call-outs). However, given the nature of leading a unit or organization of nurses, not all decisions can/should be made in a democratic manner. Things like personnel issues, disciplinary issues, and regulatory requirements are not always appropriate for group decision making.
Participative Leadership in Nursing
Participative leadership is a leadership style in which the leader actively involves team members in decision-making processes, encourages input, and values their opinions and ideas. The leader ultimately retains responsibility for making the final decision, but team members play an active role in the process. This style of leadership is particularly effective in situations where the leader has more expertise or knowledge in a particular area, but values input and collaboration from team members to achieve the best outcome.
Democratic vs. Participative
These two are similar, but have a distinct difference that is important to understand. The difference between Democratic and Participative is that in Democratic, the leader does not retail ultimate responsibility. Rather, they work towards collective decision-making and vote. In Participative, the leader will involve the team and get everyone’s perspective, but the the leader will ultimately make the decision and be responsible for that choice.)
Servant Leadership in Nursing
Servant leadership in nursing is a leadership style in which the nurse leader prioritizes the needs of the nursing team and patients over their own needs. The servant leader in nursing focuses on serving the nursing team and empowering them to achieve their full potential, which, in turn, leads to high-quality patient care.
In servant leadership, the nurse leader supports the nursing team by providing the resources they need to perform their duties effectively. This may include access to continuing education, mentorship opportunities, and resources to improve patient care. The nurse leader also listens to the concerns and feedback of the nursing team and takes their opinions into account when making decisions that affect the team.
While this sounds like a phenomenal type of leadership, it is not without cost. A servant leader may become too focused on meeting the needs of the nursing team and patients, to the point of neglecting their own needs. This can lead to burnout and decreased job satisfaction for the leader, which can ultimately impact their ability to provide effective leadership to the nursing team.
Further, servant leadership may lead to the perception that the leader is weak or ineffective. This is because the servant leader may be seen as placing too much emphasis on meeting the needs of others at the expense of setting clear expectations and holding team members accountable.
Using Leadership Theories in Nursing
Effective leadership theories can be incredibly useful for nurses looking to become better charge nurses, managers, directors, and chief nursing officer’s. Not only do they provide strategies for how to interact with each unique team member, but they also help you determine which situations are best served by letting go and which require a firmer presence.
In addition, learning about what makes a good leader can encourage nurses who may not feel confident enough to step up into these roles because it gives them the tools they need for success.
Ultimately, being armed with this knowledge is helpful for you and those under your charge. Even if it doesn’t come naturally to you at first, being aware of how you interact with others will allow you to improve over time while respecting those around you along the way.
Qualities of an Exceptional Nurse Leader
An exceptional nurse leader possesses several key qualities that enable them to effectively lead and inspire their team. Some of these qualities include:
Exceptional nurse leaders are skilled communicators who are able to clearly and effectively communicate with their team members, patients, and other healthcare professionals.
An exceptional nurse leader is empathetic and is able to understand and relate to the needs and concerns of their team members and patients.
A great nurse leader is visionary and has a clear vision for their team and the organization. They are able to inspire their team to work towards a common goal and to embrace change.
Exceptional nurse leaders are collaborative and value input from their team members. They work with their team to develop policies and procedures that are in the best interest of the organization and its patients.
Great nurse leaders hold themselves and their team members accountable for their actions and decisions. They take responsibility for their mistakes and work to rectify them.
Exceptional nurse leaders are resilient and able to navigate challenges and setbacks with grace and professionalism.
An exceptional nurse leader is professional in their conduct and actions, setting a positive example for their team members.
Great nurse leaders are knowledgeable about the nursing profession, healthcare systems, and the latest research and best practices. They are committed to ongoing education and professional development.
Exceptional nurse leaders are supportive of their team members and work to create a positive work environment that fosters growth, development, and engagement.
Overall, an exceptional nurse leader possesses a combination of technical, interpersonal, and leadership skills that enable them to effectively lead their team and provide high-quality patient care.
Why Do Nursing Leadership Theories Matter?
Nursing leadership theories matter because they provide a framework for understanding how effective nursing leaders can inspire and influence their teams to provide high-quality patient care. Nursing leadership theories help identify the traits and behaviors that are associated with successful nursing leadership, and they provide guidance on how to develop and improve nursing leadership skills.
Furthermore, nursing leadership theories can help healthcare organizations to identify and develop future nursing leaders. By identifying individuals who possess the traits and behaviors associated with effective nursing leadership, healthcare organizations can provide training and development opportunities that help these individuals to grow and develop into effective nursing leaders.
How to Develop Leadership Skills and Become a Nurse Leader
Being a registered nurse is a great way to begin your leadership journey. Your patients and family members likely already look to you as a leader. Should you decide to further your leadership potential into formal roles like charge nurse, nurse manager, director of nursing, and beyond, here are some things you can do to begin.
If you’re afraid of asking questions because people might think you’re dumb, don’t be! Your fellow nurses look up to you and want to help you grow as a professional, so don’t be shy about seeking out the information you need to do your job well. Demonstrating that you’ve got the courage and desire to get the right answer is a sign of maturity and leadership.
Whether it’s good feedback for a coworker who did a great job with a difficult patient or constructive criticism about a coworker who could improve their communication skills, it’s important to give feedback when needed without being too critical of others.
If you struggle with giving feedback, we go in-depth on how to do that in our course, Preceptor Pro: Your Essential Guide for New Nurse Preceptors.
Remember That You’re Part of a Team
While we think we may know the way something should be done, an effective leader will ask others for their perspective and even present their own and ask what the team thinks (“Hey here are my thoughts. Poke holes in my theory so we can get to the right answer!”)
Good leaders don’t lean into challenges or missteps with anger or judgement. Rather, they lead with curiosity. Instead of, “Why did you do that?!” they approach it from more of a, “Hey can you tell me more about your thought process here,” tone.
(We talk more about curiosity in the precepting course).
Leadership theories are important to nursing practice because leadership skills are imperative to leading a group of nurses to successfully provide safe care. The best nurse leaders are able to adapt to situations, customize their approach based on their staff, and are able to do so because they’ve invested the time and energy to get to know everyone – and therefore know the best way to go about it.
Getting ready for nursing school clinicals, but feeling unprepared?
Nursing School Clinical Prep from FreshRN is a self-paced video course that will prepare you for your first nursing clinical experience. Each lesson walks you through the basic tasks and concepts you will experience in the clinical setting. Once completed, you’ll feel comfortable in a hospital setting, understand the basics of what the bedside experience will feel like, and know insider tips and tricks that will make you feel confident and in control.
More Leadership Resources
- Understanding Nursing Leadership – FreshRN Podcast
- The Good Nurses: Qualities of A Good Nurse – FreshRN Blog
- Preceptor Pro: Your Essential Guide For New Nurse Preceptors – FreshRN Course
- Charge Nurse Jump Start: Communication & Leadership Skills for Growing Charge Nurses – FreshRN Course
- Critical Thinking for Nurses: A Practical Approach to Demystify This Crucial Nursing Skill – FreshRN Course
- FreshRN VIP Community: Includes three courses (Precepting, Charge Nurse, Critical Thinking) + non-Facebook online community, 1:1 coaching, and more!
Beth Boynton, RN, MS, CP says
This is a great article! Nurse leaders who develop these leadership styles and skills can have a huge and positive influence on the care we provide and the health and wellbeing of the workforce. I’d like to add, “Complexity Leadership” as another model. First introduced into nursing by Diana Crowell, RN, PhD in her groundbreaking book, “Complexity Leadership: Nursing’s Role in Health Care Delivery”. Her pioneer work focuses on understanding systems thinking and the importance of self care. (I was honored to co-author the 3rd Edition of this F.A. Davis textbook. )